Amer J Perinatol
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1608811
Original Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Morbidity Associated with Fetal Macrosomia among Women with Diabetes Mellitus

Zachary B. Jenner1, Amy E. O'Neil Dudley1, 2, Hector Mendez-Figueroa1, Viviana S. Ellis1, 3, Han-Yang Chen1, Suneet P. Chauhan1
  • 1Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas
  • 2Department of Family Medicine, Texas A&M College of Medicine, Bryan, Texas
  • 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas
Further Information

Publication History

04 April 2017

12 October 2017

Publication Date:
28 November 2017 (eFirst)


Objective This article aims to compare the composite maternal and neonatal morbidities (CMM and CNM, respectively) between macrosomic (≥4,000 g) and nonmacrosomic (<4,000 g) newborns among women with diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods Maternal demographic and peripartum outcome data (N = 1,260) were collected from a retrospective cohort. CMM included chorioamnionitis/endometritis, wound infection, shoulder dystocia, eclampsia, pulmonary edema, admission for hypoglycemia, 3rd/4th degree perineal laceration, and death. CNM included 5-minute Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity and Respiration (APGAR) score of <4, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation, intraventricular hemorrhage grade III/IV, necrotizing enterocolitis stage II/III, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, seizures, hyperbilirubinemia, and death. Multivariable Poisson regression models with robust error variance were used to calculate adjusted relative risk (aRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results The study population consisted of 967 subjects, including 854 (88.3%) nonmacrosomic and 113 (11.7%) macrosomic infants. After adjustment, the risk of CMM was higher among macrosomic deliveries (aRR = 4.08, 95% CI = 2.45–6.80). The risk of CNM was also higher among macrosomic deliveries (aRR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.39–2.24). Macrosomia was associated with an increased risk in NICU admission, hypoglycemia, and hyperbilirubinemia.

Conclusion Among DM deliveries, macrosomia was associated with a fourfold higher risk of CMM and almost twofold higher risk of CNM.


Preliminary data presented at the Central Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 83rd Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV (October 2016).