Am J Perinatol 2021; 38(S 01): e187-e192
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1709145
Original Article

Value, Strengths, and Challenges of e-Learning Modules Paired with the Flipped Classroom for Graduate Medical Education: A Survey from the National Neonatology Curriculum

Megan M. Gray
1  Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington
Rita Dadiz
2  Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York
Susan Izatt
3  Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina
Maria Gillam-Krakauer
4  Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee
Melissa M. Carbajal
5  Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine/Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas
Alison J. Falck
6  Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland
Elizabeth M. Bonachea
7  Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
Lindsay C. Johnston
8  Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
Heidi Karpen
9  Department of Pediatrics, Emory Children's Pediatric Institute, Atlanta, Georgia
Margarita M. Vasquez
10  Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas
Patricia R. Chess
11  Division of Pediatrics and Biomedical Engineering, Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York
Heather French
12  Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
› Author Affiliations
Funding This research was supported in part by the AAP Section on Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine Strategic Aims Grant.


Objective This study aimed to determine the value, strengths, and challenges of implementing an e-learning based flipped classroom (FC) educational modality as part of the standardized physiology National Neonatology Curriculum (NNC), created for neonatal-perinatal medicine (NPM) fellow learners and faculty educators.

Study Design This is a cross-sectional study of NPM fellows and faculty educators who utilized at least one of the e-learning based NNC FC respiratory physiology programs between May and September 2018. Participants were surveyed anonymously regarding their experiences participating in the NNC, including measures of preparation time. A combination of descriptive statistics and proportion comparisons were used for data analysis.

Results Among 172 respondents, the majority of fellow and faculty respondents reported positive attitudes toward the educational content and case discussions, and the majority supported national standardization of NPM physiology education (92%). Fellows reported greater preclass preparation for their FC compared with previous didactic lectures (30–60 vs. 0–15 minutes, p < 0.01). Faculty facilitators reported less preparation time before facilitating a FC compared with the time required for creating a new didactic lecture (median: 60 vs. 240 minutes, p < 0.01). Both fellows and faculty respondents preferred the FC approach to traditional didactics, with fellows showing a greater degree of preference than faculty (68 vs. 52%, respectively, p = 0.04).

Conclusion Fellows and faculty educators supported the FC learning, reporting peer-to-peer learning, and the establishment of a learning community which promotes adult learning and critical thinking skills. A national physiology curriculum creates equitable and engaging educational experiences for all NPM fellows while reducing individual program burden of content creation. Our findings further supported the development of an NNC using a flipped classroom modality.

Publication History

Received: 25 November 2019

Accepted: 25 February 2020

Publication Date:
10 April 2020 (online)

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