Differentiating Enteroviral Meningitis from Bacterial Meningitis in Neonates
Objective To compare the demographical, clinical and laboratory features, and outcomes of neonates with enteroviral meningitis (EVM) with those with bacterial meningitis (BM).
Methods A retrospective two-center study was performed in La Réunion Island between January 2008 and December 2018 in hospitalized neonates aged less than 29 days. Patients positive for enterovirus real-time polymerase chain reaction from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were diagnosed with EVM. Neonates with positive CSF culture results for a potentially pathogenic bacterium were diagnosed with BM.
Results Compared with their EVM peers (n = 20), BM-infected neonates (n = 14) had lower birth weight, and were more likely to present hypotension and neurological symptoms on admission. Thrombocytopenia, elevated serum procalcitonin, hyperproteinorachia, hypoglycorrhachia, CSF pleocytosis, a bacterial meningitis score >0 were more frequent in the BM-infected group. All BM-infected neonates had at least one abnormal cutoff value in the CSF, while nine neonates (45%) in the EVM group had no CSF abnormality (p = 0.004). BM-infected neonates also had a longer length of hospital stay, needed more supportive care, received more prolonged antimicrobial courses, and developed respiratory and neurological complications.
Conclusion Recognition of some clinical and laboratory features can help clinicians in differentiating BM from EVM when managing this high-risk patient group.
Received: 24 April 2020
Accepted: 15 September 2020
02 November 2020 (online)
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