CC BY 4.0 · Surg J (N Y) 2021; 07(01): e3-e10
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1722341
Review Article

Urology during COVID-19 Pandemic Crisis: A Systematic Review

1   Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal
2   Department of Emergency Medicine, Mangalbare Hospital, Morang, Nepal
Sanjeeb Bista
1   Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal
Suresh Thapa
1   Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal
Vikram Niranjan
3   Health Research Institute/Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
› Author Affiliations


Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has evolved as a pandemic of unimaginable magnitude. The health care system is facing a tremendous challenge to provide ethical and quality care. The transformation of the patient-based care to population-based care during the COVID-19 pandemic has raised ethical dilemma among urologists. Our objective is to explore the consensus in modified standard urology care, that can be adopted and applied during COVID-19 and similar pandemic.

Methods We adopted an exploratory study design using secondary data. The data were extracted from a web-based medical library using keywords “COVID-19,” “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2),” and “urology.” We identify and extrapolate (screening, eligibility, and inclusion) the data using PRISMA protocol, and summarize pandemic standard urology care under four main themes: (1) general urology care, (2) choice of surgical modality, (3) triage, and (4) urology training.

Result We identified 63 academic papers related to our research question. The majority are expert opinions and perspectives on urology care. The common consensus is triage-based urology care and surgeries. Life or organ threatening conditions need immediate attention. Universal protective measures (personal protective equipment, safe operative environment) and protocol-based patient care are necessary to prevent and control SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conservation of the resources and its rational distribution provide an ethical basis for population-based health care during a pandemic. Informed decision making serves best to patients, families, and society during the public health crisis.

Conclusion COVID-19 pandemic tends to transform standard urology practice into crisis standard population-based care. The consensus in crisis is drawn from evolving pieces of medical evidence and public health ethics. The provision of urology care during a pandemic is based on the availability of resources; severity of the disease, consequences of deferment of service, and dynamics of the pandemic.

Authorship Contributions

Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.


There is no funding sources and no conflict of interest. This review is original work of the authors listed.

Publication History

Received: 20 July 2020

Accepted: 14 October 2020

Article published online:
15 January 2021

© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (

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