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Comparison of High CPAP versus NIPPV in Preterm Neonates: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Objective The aim of this study was to compare outcomes following receipt of high continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in extremely preterm neonates.
Study Design We retrospectively compared outcomes of preterm neonates (22–28 weeks' gestation) following their first episode of either high CPAP (≥ 9 cm H2O) or NIPPV. Primary outcome was failure of high CPAP or NIPPV within 7 days, as determined by either need for intubation or use of an alternate noninvasive mode.
Results During the 3-year study period, 53 infants received high CPAP, while 119 patients received NIPPV. There were no differences in the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio 1.21; 95% confidence interval 0.49–3.01). The use of alternate mode of noninvasive support was higher with the use of high CPAP but no other outcome differences were noted.
Conclusion Based on this cohort, there was no difference in incidence of failure between high CPAP and NIPPV, although infants receiving high CPAP were more likely to require an alternate mode of noninvasive support.
Use of high CPAP pressures (defined as ≥9 cm H2O) is gradually increasing during care of preterm neonates.
Limited data exists regarding its efficacy and safety.
This study compares high CPAP with NIPPV, and demonstrates comparable short-term clinical outcomes.
Keywordsnoninvasive respiratory support - continuous positive airway pressure - noninvasive positive pressure ventilation - distending pressure - invasive mechanical ventilation
H.A.A. performed the primary data collection for all subjects, and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. V.D. and W.P. assisted in data collection and provided input in study design. L.T. and P.S. contributed to study design/methodology and analysis plan. A.M. devised the study concept, performed statistical analyses, and revised the manuscript into its final form.
Received: 27 August 2020
Accepted: 22 February 2021
Article published online:
14 April 2021
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