Am J Perinatol 2022; 39(16): 1828-1834
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1727159
Original Article

Comparison of High CPAP versus NIPPV in Preterm Neonates: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Hussain Alsaid Ahmad
1   Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
,
Veena Deekonda
2   Department of Respiratory Therapy, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
,
Waseemoddin Patel
3   Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Princess Nourah Bint AbdulRahman University, King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
,
Lehana Thabane
1   Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
,
Prakesh S. Shah
4   Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
,
Amit Mukerji
1   Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Objective The aim of this study was to compare outcomes following receipt of high continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in extremely preterm neonates.

Study Design We retrospectively compared outcomes of preterm neonates (22–28 weeks' gestation) following their first episode of either high CPAP (≥ 9 cm H2O) or NIPPV. Primary outcome was failure of high CPAP or NIPPV within 7 days, as determined by either need for intubation or use of an alternate noninvasive mode.

Results During the 3-year study period, 53 infants received high CPAP, while 119 patients received NIPPV. There were no differences in the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio 1.21; 95% confidence interval 0.49–3.01). The use of alternate mode of noninvasive support was higher with the use of high CPAP but no other outcome differences were noted.

Conclusion Based on this cohort, there was no difference in incidence of failure between high CPAP and NIPPV, although infants receiving high CPAP were more likely to require an alternate mode of noninvasive support.

Key Points

  • Use of high CPAP pressures (defined as ≥9 cm H2O) is gradually increasing during care of preterm neonates.

  • Limited data exists regarding its efficacy and safety.

  • This study compares high CPAP with NIPPV, and demonstrates comparable short-term clinical outcomes.

Authors' Contributions

H.A.A. performed the primary data collection for all subjects, and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. V.D. and W.P. assisted in data collection and provided input in study design. L.T. and P.S. contributed to study design/methodology and analysis plan. A.M. devised the study concept, performed statistical analyses, and revised the manuscript into its final form.


Supplementary Material



Publication History

Received: 27 August 2020

Accepted: 22 February 2021

Article published online:
14 April 2021

© 2021. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.
333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USA