Am J Perinatol
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1776350
Short Communication

Predictors of Preexposure Prophylaxis Eligibility among Pregnant People with Opioid Use Disorder

1   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
,
Paavani Reddy
1   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
,
2   Department of Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington
,
Mary E. Arlandson
1   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
3   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Cook County Health, Chicago, Illinois
,
Ashlesha Patel
1   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
3   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Cook County Health, Chicago, Illinois
,
4   Section of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pritzker School of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Objective We seek to evaluate risk factors for eligibility for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among pregnant people with opioid use disorder (OUD).

Study Design This is a single-site retrospective cohort study of pregnant people admitted for management of OUD at an urban, tertiary care center from 2013 to 2022. PrEP eligibility was defined based on (1) modified American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' (ACOG) 2014 criteria: diagnosis of a sexually transmitted infection (STI), engagement in transactional sex work, intravenous drug use (IVDU), or incarceration and (2) modified 2021 Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria: diagnosis of bacterial STI (e.g., gonorrhea or syphilis) or transactional sex work. Risk factors associated with PrEP eligibility were evaluated using chi- square or Fischer's exact tests for categorical variables and t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuous variables. Multivariable regression was used to control for confounding covariates, defined as p < 0.10 on bivariate analysis. p < 0.05 was used to indicate statistical significance.

Results A total of 132 individuals met inclusion criteria, of whom 101 (76.5%) were deemed eligible for PrEP by meeting one or more modified 2014 ACOG criteria: 42 (31.8%) were incarcerated or had one or more STIs, while 30 (22.7%) endorsed engaging in transactional sex work and 68 (58.6%) endorsed IVDU. Using modified 2021 CDC criteria, 37 (28%) met PrEP eligibility, with 12 (9.1%) diagnosed specifically with a bacterial STI and 30 (22.7%) engaging in transactional sex work. Only comorbid psychiatric illness was associated with an increased risk for PrEP eligibility based on 2014 criteria, which persisted after controlling for maternal race/ethnicity (aRR 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–1.86), and 2021 criteria, which persisted after controlling for nulliparity (aRR 2.12, 95% CI 1.30–3.57).

Conclusion A significant number of pregnant people with OUD meet one or more criteria for PrEP, with comorbid psychiatric conditions increasing the risk of meeting criteria.

Key Points

  • Comorbid psychiatric illness is significantly associated with high risk of PrEP eligibility.

  • A large proportion of pregnant individuals with active OUD meet criteria for PrEP prescribing.

  • Risk-based screening algorithms for PrEP eligibility have limitations.



Publication History

Received: 15 January 2023

Accepted: 26 September 2023

Article published online:
27 October 2023

© 2023. Thieme. All rights reserved.

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