Endoscopy 1998; 30(6): 508-512
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-1001335
Original Article

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Non-Variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Forrest's Classification: Diagnostic Agreement Between Endoscopists from the Same Area

A. Mondardini, C. Barletti, G. Rocca, A. Garripoli, A. Sambataro, C. Perotto, A. Repici, A. Ferrari
  • Dept. of Gastroenterology, Service of Digestive Endoscopy, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Battista, Turin, Italy
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
17 March 2008 (online)


Background and Study Aims: The lack of uniformity in defining the stigmata of hemorrhage in patients with bleeding ulcers is suggested by the wide range among published studies in prevalence and rebleeding rates for the same stigmata. Moreover there is, in published trials of endoscopic hemostasis, little standardization of definitions of stigmata of hemorrhage. The aim of this study was to assess the interobserver agreement among endoscopists from the same area (Piedmont and Valley of Aosta).

Patients and Methods: A workshop for 47 expert endoscopists was organized in order to evaluate their agreement in the diagnosis of stigmata of recent hemorrhage, according to Forrest's classification. During the meeting 25 videotapes from endoscopic examinations of patients with recent non-variceal bleeding were shown to the 47 endoscopists, who were asked to classify every lesion.

Results: The overall and beyond chance interobserver agreement was calculated by means of the kappa statistic. The overall agreement among endoscopists was highly significant (p < 0.001, K = 0.60), while the beyond chance agreement varied from excellent to good for lesions with active bleeding (K = 0.76 and K = 0.61 for FIA and FIB lesions respectively), whereas for lesions with stigmata of recent hemorrhage K varied from 0.44 to 0.49.

Conclusions: These data suggest the need for better knowledge of endoscopic criteria, in order to evaluate the results of endoscopic therapy and to assess new treatments.