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Therapeutic plasma exchange in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
11 February 2014
28 April 2014
28 July 2015 (online)
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a rare, life-threatening disorder characterized by impaired cytotoxicity, hypercytokinemia and immune-mediated organ injury. We report a 7-week-old male of consanguineous parents who presented with fever, pancytopenia and multi-organ failure. Elevated inflammatory markers and hypercytokinemia led to the diagnosis of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, which was confirmed with genetic testing. With the fulminant multiorgan failure, therapeutic plasma exchange was instituted, using the Prismaflex® platform, followed by standard chemo-immunotherapy. There was dramatic reversal of the multi-organ failure and stabilization of the coagulopathy with this neo-adjuvant therapy. Thereafter, he was maintained in clinical remission with chemo-immunotherapy for 3 mo while awaiting stem cell transplantation.