Planta Med 2024; 90(04): 256-266
DOI: 10.1055/a-2220-9301
Biological and Pharmacological Activity
Original Papers

Dendropanoxide Attenuates High Glucose-induced Oxidative Damage in NRK-52E Cells via AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway

Song Hee Lee
1   School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Seobu-ro 2066, Kyunggi-Do, Suwon, Republic of Korea
Ju Ri Kim
1   School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Seobu-ro 2066, Kyunggi-Do, Suwon, Republic of Korea
Joo Kyung Shin
1   School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Seobu-ro 2066, Kyunggi-Do, Suwon, Republic of Korea
Jin-Sol Lee
1   School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Seobu-ro 2066, Kyunggi-Do, Suwon, Republic of Korea
Young Mi Kim
2   College of Pharmacy, Duksung Womenʼs University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
1   School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Seobu-ro 2066, Kyunggi-Do, Suwon, Republic of Korea
Hyung Sik Kim
1   School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Seobu-ro 2066, Kyunggi-Do, Suwon, Republic of Korea
› Author Affiliations


Hyperglycemia is a potent risk factor for the development and progression of diabetes-induced nephropathy. Dendropanoxide (DPx) is a natural compound isolated from Dendropanax morbifera (Araliaceae) that exerts various biological effects. However, the role of DPx in hyperglycemia-induced renal tubular cell injury remains unclear. The present study explored the protective mechanism of DPx on high glucose (HG)-induced cytotoxicity in kidney tubular epithelial NRK-52E cells. The cells were cultured with normal glucose (5.6 mM), HG (30 mM), HG + metformin (10 µM), or HG + DPx (10 µM) for 48 h, and cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed. Malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured. Protein-based nephrotoxicity biomarkers were measured in both the culture media and cell lysates. MDA and AGEs were significantly increased in NRK-52E cells cultured with HG, and these levels were markedly reduced by pretreatment with DPx or metformin. DPx significantly reduced the levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1), or neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in NRK-52E cells cultured under HG conditions. Furthermore, treatment with DPx significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activity. DPx protects against HG-induced renal tubular cell damage, which may be mediated by its ability to inhibit oxidative stress through the protein kinase B/mammalian target of the rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. These findings suggest that DPx can be used as a new drug for the treatment of high glucose-induced diabetic nephropathy.

Publication History

Received: 18 August 2023

Accepted after revision: 30 November 2023

Accepted Manuscript online:
01 December 2023

Article published online:
16 January 2024

© 2023. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

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