Am J Perinatol
DOI: 10.1055/a-2259-0101
Review Article

Gut Microbiota and Neonatal Acute Kidney Injury

Kun Yang
1   Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China
2   Department of Perinatology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China
3   Sichuan Clinical Research Center for Birth Defects, Luzhou, China
Hongxia He
1   Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China
2   Department of Perinatology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China
3   Sichuan Clinical Research Center for Birth Defects, Luzhou, China
Wenbin Dong
1   Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China
2   Department of Perinatology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China
3   Sichuan Clinical Research Center for Birth Defects, Luzhou, China
› Author Affiliations
Funding This article was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81571480), Sichuan Science and Technology Department Major Science and Technology Special Project (22ZDYF1470), and Luzhou Municipal People's Government-Southwest Medical University Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Project (2020LZXNYDJ03).


Objective To characterize the relationship between gut microbiota and neonatal acute kidney injury biomarkers based on the gut-kidney axis.

Study Design The Pubmed database was primarily searched to include relevant literature on gut microbiota and neonatal acute kidney injury biomarkers, which was subsequently organized and analyzed and a manuscript was written.

Results Gut microbiota was associated with neonatal acute kidney injury biomarkers. These biomarkers included TIMP-2, IGFBP-7, VEGF, calbindin, GST, B2MG, ghrelin, and clusterin.

Conclusion The gut microbiota is strongly associated with neonatal acute kidney injury biomarkers, and controlling the gut microbiota may be a potential target for ameliorating neonatal acute kidney injury.

Key Points

  • There is a bidirectional association between gut microbiota and AKI.

  • Gut microbiota is closely associated with biomarkers of nAKI.

  • Manipulation of gut microbiota may improve nAKI.

Authors' Contribution

K.Y. and W.D. designed the manuscript. K.Y. and H.H. collected data for the manuscript. K.Y. wrote the manuscript. K.Y., H.H., and W.D. revised the manuscript. All authors contributed to the manuscript and approved the submitted version.

Publication History

Received: 31 July 2023

Accepted: 30 January 2024

Accepted Manuscript online:
01 February 2024

Article published online:
26 February 2024

© 2024. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.
333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USA

  • References

  • 1 Starr MC, Charlton JR, Guillet R. et al; Neonatal Kidney Collaborative Board. Advances in neonatal acute kidney injury. Pediatrics 2021; 148 (05) e2021051220
  • 2 Starr MC, Menon S. Neonatal acute kidney injury: a case-based approach. Pediatr Nephrol 2021; 36 (11) 3607-3619
  • 3 Kuo J, Akison LK, Chatfield MD, Trnka P, Moritz KM. Serum and urinary biomarkers to predict acute kidney injury in premature infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy. J Nephrol 2022; 35 (08) 2001-2014
  • 4 ElSadek AE, El Gafar EA, Behiry EG, Nazem SA, Abdel Haie OM. Kidney injury molecule-1/creatinine as a urinary biomarker of acute kidney injury in critically ill neonates. J Pediatr Urol 2020; 16 (05) 688.e1-688.e9
  • 5 Kobayashi T, Iwata Y, Nakade Y, Wada T. Significance of the gut microbiota in acute kidney injury. Toxins (Basel) 2021; 13 (06) 369
  • 6 Delzenne NM, Rodriguez J. Nutrition and microbiome. Handb Exp Pharmacol 2022; 274: 57-73
  • 7 Dicks LMT, Geldenhuys J, Mikkelsen LS, Brandsborg E, Marcotte H. Our gut microbiota: a long walk to homeostasis. Benef Microbes 2018; 9 (01) 3-20
  • 8 Zaky A, Glastras SJ, Wong MYW, Pollock CA, Saad S. The role of the gut microbiome in diabetes and obesity-related kidney disease. Int J Mol Sci 2021; 22 (17) 9641
  • 9 Gharaie S, Lee K, Newman-Rivera AM. et al. Microbiome modulation after severe acute kidney injury accelerates functional recovery and decreases kidney fibrosis. Kidney Int 2023; 104 (03) 470-491
  • 10 Wang H, Ainiwaer A, Song Y. et al. Perturbed gut microbiome and fecal and serum metabolomes are associated with chronic kidney disease severity. Microbiome 2023; 11 (01) 3
  • 11 Ren F, Jin Q, Liu T, Ren X, Zhan Y. Causal effects between gut microbiota and IgA nephropathy: a bidirectional Mendelian randomization study. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2023; 13: 1171517
  • 12 Wang F, Li N, Ni S. et al. The effects of specific gut microbiota and metabolites on IgA nephropathy-based on mendelian randomization and clinical validation. Nutrients 2023; 15 (10) 2407
  • 13 Wang Y, Zhao J, Qin Y. et al. The specific alteration of gut microbiota in diabetic kidney diseases-a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Immunol 2022; 13: 908219
  • 14 Lei J, Xie Y, Sheng J, Song J. Intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in acute kidney injury: novel insights into mechanisms and promising therapeutic strategies. Ren Fail 2022; 44 (01) 571-580
  • 15 Lin JR, Wang ZT, Sun JJ. et al. Gut microbiota and diabetic kidney diseases: Pathogenesis and therapeutic perspectives. World J Diabetes 2022; 13 (04) 308-318
  • 16 Cao C, Zhu H, Yao Y, Zeng R. Gut dysbiosis and kidney diseases. Front Med (Lausanne) 2022; 9: 829349
  • 17 Yang J, Kim CJ, Go YS. et al. Intestinal microbiota control acute kidney injury severity by immune modulation. Kidney Int 2020; 98 (04) 932-946
  • 18 Nakade Y, Iwata Y, Furuichi K. et al. Gut microbiota-derived D-serine protects against acute kidney injury. JCI Insight 2018; 3 (20) e97957
  • 19 Shi HH, Chen LP, Wang CC. et al. Docosahexaenoic acid-acylated curcumin diester alleviates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by regulating the effect of gut microbiota on the lipopolysaccharide- and trimethylamine-N-oxide-mediated PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway in mice. Food Funct 2022; 13 (11) 6103-6117
  • 20 Chou YT, Kan WC, Shiao CC. Acute kidney injury and gut dysbiosis: a narrative review focus on pathophysiology and treatment. Int J Mol Sci 2022; 23 (07) 3658
  • 21 Yang K, Du G, Liu J, Zhao S, Dong W. Gut microbiota and neonatal acute kidney injury biomarkers. Pediatr Nephrol 2023; 38 (11) 3529-3547
  • 22 Srisawat N, Kellum JA. The role of biomarkers in acute kidney injury. Crit Care Clin 2020; 36 (01) 125-140
  • 23 Chen J, Sun Y, Wang S. et al. The effectiveness of urinary TIMP-2 and IGFBP-7 in predicting acute kidney injury in critically ill neonates. Pediatr Res 2020; 87 (06) 1052-1059
  • 24 Ramírez M, Chakravarti S, Busovsky-McNeal M. et al. Elevated levels of urinary biomarkers TIMP-2 and IGFBP-7 predict acute kidney injury in neonates after congenital heart surgery. J Pediatr Intensive Care 2021; 11 (02) 153-158
  • 25 Gist KM, Goldstein SL, Wrona J. et al. Kinetics of the cell cycle arrest biomarkers (TIMP-2*IGFBP-7) for prediction of acute kidney injury in infants after cardiac surgery. Pediatr Nephrol 2017; 32 (09) 1611-1619
  • 26 Bojan M, Pieroni L, Semeraro M, Froissart M. Cell-cycle arrest biomarkers: usefulness for cardiac surgery-related acute kidney injury in neonates and infants. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2020; 21 (06) 563-570
  • 27 Chen Z, Qian X, Chen S, Fu X, Ma G, Zhang A. Akkermansia muciniphila enhances the antitumor effect of cisplatin in Lewis lung cancer mice. J Immunol Res 2020; 2020: 2969287
  • 28 Emenaker NJ, Calaf GM, Cox D, Basson MD, Qureshi N. Short-chain fatty acids inhibit invasive human colon cancer by modulating uPA, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, mutant p53, Bcl-2, Bax, p21 and PCNA protein expression in an in vitro cell culture model. J Nutr 2001; 131 (11, suppl) 3041S-3046S
  • 29 Niklander S, Bordagaray MJ, Fernández A, Hernández M. Vascular endothelial growth factor: a translational view in oral non-communicable diseases. Biomolecules 2021; 11 (01) 85
  • 30 Zhong X, Tang TT, Shen AR. et al. Tubular epithelial cells-derived small extracellular vesicle-VEGF-A promotes peritubular capillary repair in ischemic kidney injury. NPJ Regen Med 2022; 7 (01) 73
  • 31 Zepeda-Orozco D, Wen HM, Hamilton BA, Raikwar NS, Thomas CP. EGF regulation of proximal tubule cell proliferation and VEGF-A secretion. Physiol Rep 2017; 5 (18) e13453
  • 32 Zhang Y, Nakano D, Guan Y. et al. A sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor attenuates renal capillary injury and fibrosis by a vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent pathway after renal injury in mice. Kidney Int 2018; 94 (03) 524-535
  • 33 Yoshida M, Nakamichi T, Mori T, Ito K, Shimokawa H, Ito S. Low-energy extracorporeal shock wave ameliorates ischemic acute kidney injury in rats. Clin Exp Nephrol 2019; 23 (05) 597-605
  • 34 Mori da Cunha MG, Zia S, Beckmann DV. et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor up-regulation in human amniotic fluid stem cell enhances nephroprotection after ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat. Crit Care Med 2017; 45 (01) e86-e96
  • 35 Heitrich M, García DM, Stoyanoff TR, Rodríguez JP, Todaro JS, Aguirre MV. Erythropoietin attenuates renal and pulmonary injury in polymicrobial induced-sepsis through EPO-R, VEGF and VEGF-R2 modulation. Biomed Pharmacother 2016; 82: 606-613
  • 36 Mansour SG, Zhang WR, Moledina DG. et al; TRIBE-AKI Consortium. The association of angiogenesis markers with acute kidney injury and mortality after cardiac surgery. Am J Kidney Dis 2019; 74 (01) 36-46
  • 37 Bai Y, Zhang Y, Yang S. et al. Protective effect of vascular endothelial growth factor against cardiopulmonary bypass-associated acute kidney injury in beagles. Exp Ther Med 2018; 15 (01) 963-969
  • 38 Xu Y, Jiang W, Zhong L. et al. miR-195-5p alleviates acute kidney injury through repression of inflammation and oxidative stress by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor A. Aging (Albany NY) 2020; 12 (11) 10235-10245
  • 39 Qin LL, Xue F, Yin F, Zhao J, Zhang KY. Expression of syndecan-1, PKC and VEGF in rats with acute kidney injury and correlation between syndecan-1 and renal function. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2020; 24 (24) 12794-12801
  • 40 Askenazi DJ, Halloran BA, Heagerty PJ. et al. Urine acute kidney injury biomarkers in extremely low gestational age neonates: a nested case control study of 21 candidate urine biomarkers. Pediatr Nephrol 2022; 38 (04) 1329-1342
  • 41 Yang X, Tang T, Li M. et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor may be involved in the behavioral changes of progeny rats after exposure to ceftriaxone sodium during pregnancy. J Microbiol Biotechnol 2022; 32 (06) 699-708
  • 42 Yang S, Dai H, Lu Y, Li R, Gao C, Pan S. Trimethylamine N-Oxide promotes cell proliferation and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer. J Immunol Res 2022; 2022: 7043856
  • 43 Huang J, Kelly CP, Bakirtzi K. et al. Clostridium difficile toxins induce VEGF-A and vascular permeability to promote disease pathogenesis. Nat Microbiol 2019; 4 (02) 269-279
  • 44 Suh SH, Choe K, Hong SP. et al. Gut microbiota regulates lacteal integrity by inducing VEGF-C in intestinal villus macrophages. EMBO Rep 2019; 20 (04) e46927
  • 45 Wang X, Zhao J, Qin L. VEGF-C mediated enhancement of lymphatic drainage reduces intestinal inflammation by regulating IL-9/IL-17 balance and improving gut microbiota in experimental chronic colitis. Am J Transl Res 2017; 9 (11) 4772-4784
  • 46 George B, Joy MS, Aleksunes LM. Urinary protein biomarkers of kidney injury in patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2018; 243 (03) 272-282
  • 47 Mahmoud SF, Elewa YH, Nomir AG, Rashwan AM, Noreldin AE. Calbindin has a potential spatiotemporal correlation with proliferation and apoptosis in the postnatal rat kidney. Microsc Microanal 2023; 29 (05) 1705-1717
  • 48 Lane BR, Babitz SK, Vlasakova K. et al. Evaluation of urinary renal biomarkers for early prediction of acute kidney injury following partial nephrectomy: a feasibility study. Eur Urol Focus 2020; 6 (06) 1240-1247
  • 49 George B, Szilagyi JT, Joy MS, Aleksunes LM. Regulation of renal calbindin expression during cisplatin-induced kidney injury. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2022; 36 (07) e23068
  • 50 McVey Neufeld KA, Perez-Burgos A, Mao YK, Bienenstock J, Kunze WA. The gut microbiome restores intrinsic and extrinsic nerve function in germ-free mice accompanied by changes in calbindin. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2015; 27 (05) 627-636
  • 51 Hung LY, Parathan P, Boonma P. et al. Antibiotic exposure postweaning disrupts the neurochemistry and function of enteric neurons mediating colonic motor activity. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2020; 318 (06) G1042-G1053
  • 52 Hung LY, Boonma P, Unterweger P. et al. Neonatal antibiotics disrupt motility and enteric neural circuits in mouse colon. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 8 (02) 298-300.e6
  • 53 Singh RR, Reindl KM. Glutathione S-transferases in cancer. Antioxidants (Basel) 2021; 10 (05) 701
  • 54 Zager RA, Johnson ACM. Early loss of glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activity during diverse forms of acute renal tubular injury. Physiol Rep 2022; 10 (12) e15352
  • 55 Jansen D, Peters E, Heemskerk S. et al. Tubular injury biomarkers to detect gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury in the neonatal intensive care unit. Am J Perinatol 2016; 33 (02) 180-187
  • 56 Askenazi DJ, Koralkar R, Patil N, Halloran B, Ambalavanan N, Griffin R. Acute kidney injury urine biomarkers in very low-birth-weight infants. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2016; 11 (09) 1527-1535
  • 57 Stojanović VD, Barišić NA, Radovanović TD. et al. Serum glutathione S-transferase Pi as predictor of the outcome and acute kidney injury in premature newborns. Pediatr Nephrol 2018; 33 (07) 1251-1256
  • 58 Sun Z, Sun W, An J, Xu H, Liu Y, Yan C. Copper and chlorpyrifos stress affect the gut microbiota of chironomid larvae (Propsilocerus akamusi). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022; 244: 114027
  • 59 Wu Y, Zheng Y, Chen Y. et al. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) gut microbiota promotes host endogenous detoxification capability via regulation of P450 gene expression in the digestive tract. Microb Biotechnol 2020; 13 (04) 1201-1212
  • 60 Zhang F, Qi N, Zeng Y. et al. The endogenous alterations of the gut microbiota and feces metabolites alleviate oxidative damage in the brain of LanCL1 knockout mice. Front Microbiol 2020; 11: 557342
  • 61 Zhang HX, Wang LM, Guo JP. et al. Gut microbiota and differential genes-maintained homeostasis is key to maintaining health of individuals with Yang-deficiency constitution. J Tradit Chin Med 2022; 42 (01) 96-101
  • 62 Foligné B, Plé C, Titécat M. et al. Contribution of the gut microbiota in P28GST-mediated anti-inflammatory effects: experimental and clinical insights. Cells 2019; 8 (06) 577
  • 63 Griffin BR, Faubel S, Edelstein CL. Biomarkers of drug-induced kidney toxicity. Ther Drug Monit 2019; 41 (02) 213-226
  • 64 Wang C, Wang Z, Yao T, Zhou J, Wang Z. The immune-related role of beta-2-microglobulin in melanoma. Front Oncol 2022; 12: 944722
  • 65 Du Y, Zappitelli M, Mian A. et al. Urinary biomarkers to detect acute kidney injury in the pediatric emergency center. Pediatr Nephrol 2011; 26 (02) 267-274
  • 66 El-Frargy MS, El-Refaey AM, Eid R, Hussien MA. Serum cystatin-C and BETA 2-microglobulin as accurate markers in the early diagnosis of kidney injury in neonates: a single center study. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2015; 26 (04) 712-717
  • 67 Abdullah, Kadam P, Yachha M, Srivastava G, Pillai A, Pandita A. Urinary beta-2 microglobulin as an early predictive biomarker of acute kidney injury in neonates with perinatal asphyxia. Eur J Pediatr 2022; 181 (01) 281-286
  • 68 Jalali SZ, Enteshari M, Saadat F. Reciprocal assessment of urinary beta-2-microglobulin and BUN levels in renal dysfunction of neonates with birth asphyxia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2022; 35 (25) 6624-6630
  • 69 Zaffanello M, Antonucci R, Cuzzolin L, Cataldi L, Fanos V. Early diagnosis of acute kidney injury with urinary biomarkers in the newborn. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2009; 22 (Suppl. 03) 62-66
  • 70 Lin P, Bach M, Asquith M. et al. HLA-B27 and human β2-microglobulin affect the gut microbiota of transgenic rats. PLoS ONE 2014; 9 (08) e105684
  • 71 Asquith M, Davin S, Stauffer P. et al. Intestinal metabolites are profoundly altered in the context of HLA-B27 expression and functionally modulate disease in a rat model of spondyloarthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol 2017; 69 (10) 1984-1995
  • 72 Simeoni M, Citraro ML, Cerantonio A. et al. An open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled study on the effectiveness of a novel probiotics administration protocol (ProbiotiCKD) in patients with mild renal insufficiency (stage 3a of CKD). Eur J Nutr 2019; 58 (05) 2145-2156
  • 73 Ma Y, Zhang H, Guo W, Yu L. Potential role of ghrelin in the regulation of inflammation. FASEB J 2022; 36 (09) e22508
  • 74 Khowailed A, Younan SM, Ashour H, Kamel AE, Sharawy N. Effects of ghrelin on sepsis-induced acute kidney injury: one step forward. Clin Exp Nephrol 2015; 19 (03) 419-426
  • 75 Çimen S, Taşdemir C, Vardı N, Ateş B, Taşdemir S, Özaydoğdu Çimen A. Protective effects of ghrelin on kidney tissue in rats with partial ureteral obstruction. Turk J Med Sci 2019; 49 (02) 696-702
  • 76 Zhang W, Shu L. Upregulation of miR-21 by ghrelin ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury by inhibiting inflammation and cell apoptosis. DNA Cell Biol 2016; 35 (08) 417-425
  • 77 Takeda R, Nishimatsu H, Suzuki E. et al. Ghrelin improves renal function in mice with ischemic acute renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17 (01) 113-121
  • 78 Yan X, Zhang H, Lin A, Su Y. Antagonization of ghrelin suppresses muscle protein deposition by altering gut microbiota and serum amino acid composition in a pig model. Biology (Basel) 2022; 11 (06) 840
  • 79 Wu CS, Wei Q, Wang H. et al. Protective effects of ghrelin on fasting-induced muscle atrophy in aging mice. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2020; 75 (04) 621-630
  • 80 Noh JY, Wu CS, DeLuca JAA. et al. Novel role of ghrelin receptor in gut dysbiosis and experimental colitis in aging. Int J Mol Sci 2022; 23 (04) 2219
  • 81 Gu M, Liu C, Yang T. et al. High-fat diet induced gut microbiota alterations associating with ghrelin/Jak2/Stat3 up-regulation to promote benign prostatic hyperplasia development. Front Cell Dev Biol 2021; 9: 615928
  • 82 Leeuwendaal NK, Cryan JF, Schellekens H. Gut peptides and the microbiome: focus on ghrelin. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2021; 28 (02) 243-252
  • 83 Torres-Fuentes C, Golubeva AV, Zhdanov AV. et al. Short-chain fatty acids and microbiota metabolites attenuate ghrelin receptor signaling. FASEB J 2019; 33 (12) 13546-13559
  • 84 Perry RJ, Peng L, Barry NA. et al. Acetate mediates a microbiome-brain-β-cell axis to promote metabolic syndrome. Nature 2016; 534 (7606): 213-217
  • 85 Heo JY, Kim JE, Dan Y. et al. Clusterin deficiency induces lipid accumulation and tissue damage in kidney. J Endocrinol 2018; 237 (02) 175-191
  • 86 Vinken P, Starckx S, Barale-Thomas E. et al. Tissue Kim-1 and urinary clusterin as early indicators of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in rats. Toxicol Pathol 2012; 40 (07) 1049-1062
  • 87 Guo J, Guan Q, Liu X. et al. Relationship of clusterin with renal inflammation and fibrosis after the recovery phase of ischemia-reperfusion injury. BMC Nephrol 2016; 17 (01) 133
  • 88 Won AJ, Kim S, Kim YG. et al. Discovery of urinary metabolomic biomarkers for early detection of acute kidney injury. Mol Biosyst 2016; 12 (01) 133-144
  • 89 Gordin E, Gordin D, Viitanen S. et al. Urinary clusterin and cystatin B as biomarkers of tubular injury in dogs following envenomation by the European adder. Res Vet Sci 2021; 134: 12-18
  • 90 Da Y, Akalya K, Murali T. et al. Serial quantification of urinary protein biomarkers to predict drug-induced acute kidney injury. Curr Drug Metab 2019; 20 (08) 656-664
  • 91 Musiał K, Augustynowicz M, Miśkiewicz-Migoń I, Kałwak K, Ussowicz M, Zwolińska D. Clusterin as a new marker of kidney injury in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-a pilot study. J Clin Med 2020; 9 (08) 2599
  • 92 Wang QJ, Shen YE, Wang X. et al. Concomitant memantine and Lactobacillus plantarum treatment attenuates cognitive impairments in APP/PS1 mice. Aging (Albany NY) 2020; 12 (01) 628-649
  • 93 Liu J, Zhang T, Wang Y. et al. Baicalin ameliorates neuropathology in repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model mice by remodeling the gut microbiota. Aging (Albany NY) 2020; 12 (04) 3791-3806
  • 94 Jun YK, Yoon HT, Kwon SH. et al. Regulation of psoriasis, colitis, and the intestinal microbiota by clusterin. Sci Rep 2023; 13 (01) 15405
  • 95 Zhu H, Cao C, Wu Z. et al. The probiotic L. casei Zhang slows the progression of acute and chronic kidney disease. Cell Metab 2021; 33 (10) 1926-1942.e8
  • 96 Yang J, Ji GE, Park MS. et al. Probiotics partially attenuate the severity of acute kidney injury through an immunomodulatory effect. Kidney Res Clin Pract 2021; 40 (04) 620-633
  • 97 Lee TH, Park D, Kim YJ. et al. Lactobacillus salivarius BP121 prevents cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by inhibition of uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate via alleviating dysbiosis. Int J Mol Med 2020; 45 (04) 1130-1140
  • 98 Liu Y, Li YJ, Loh YW. et al. Fiber derived microbial metabolites prevent acute kidney injury through G-protein coupled receptors and HDAC inhibition. Front Cell Dev Biol 2021; 9: 648639
  • 99 Kawabata C, Hirakawa Y, Inagi R, Nangaku M. Acetate attenuates kidney fibrosis in an oxidative stress-dependent manner. Physiol Rep 2023; 11 (14) e15774
  • 100 Zheng JY, Wang SC, Tang SC. et al. Sodium acetate ameliorates cisplatin-induced kidney injury in vitro and in vivo. Chem Biol Interact 2023; 369: 110258
  • 101 Andrade-Oliveira V, Amano MT, Correa-Costa M. et al. Gut bacteria products prevent AKI induced by ischemia-reperfusion. J Am Soc Nephrol 2015; 26 (08) 1877-1888
  • 102 Dai XY, Hu Q, Yao JQ. et al. Zengye decoction attenuated severe acute pancreatitis complicated with acute kidney injury by modulating the gut microbiome and serum amino acid metabolome. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022; 2022: 1588786
  • 103 Zou YT, Zhou J, Zhu JH. et al. Gut microbiota mediates the protective effects of traditional chinese medicine formula qiong-yu-gao against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Microbiol Spectr 2022; 10 (03) e0075922
  • 104 Caggiano G, Stasi A, Franzin R. et al. Fecal microbiota transplantation in reducing uremic toxins accumulation in kidney disease: current understanding and future perspectives. Toxins (Basel) 2023; 15 (02) 115
  • 105 Zheng DW, Pan P, Chen KW. et al. An orally delivered microbial cocktail for the removal of nitrogenous metabolic waste in animal models of kidney failure. Nat Biomed Eng 2020; 4 (09) 853-862