Eur J Pediatr Surg 2021; 31(06): 530-534
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1721389
Original Article

An Important Risk Factor Affecting Hypercalciuria in Children: Vesicoureteral Reflux

1   Department of Urology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
,
Meylis Artykov
1   Department of Urology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
,
Berk Hazir
1   Department of Urology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
,
Mesut Altan
1   Department of Urology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
,
1   Department of Urology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
,
Oguzhan Kahraman
1   Department of Urology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
,
Serdar Tekgul
2   Division of Pediatric Urology, Department of Urology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
,
Hasan Serkan Dogan
2   Division of Pediatric Urology, Department of Urology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Introduction A large number of genes and environmental factors, like dietary habits, play a role in the development of hypercalciuria in children. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of the presence and grade of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) on hypercalciuria status in children.

Materials and Methods Data for 165 patients who admitted to the Pediatric Urology Department were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were composed of following four different groups: (1) urinary stone patients, (2) VUR patients under follow-up, (3) corrected VUR patients, and (4) control. The demographic features, clinical data, and laboratory tests for the groups were compared.

Results The mean age of the patients was 100.6 ± 54.69 months and the female/male ratio was 79:86. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine (UCa/Cr) excretion and the frequency of high UCa/Cr ratios in the corrected VUR group were similar to those in the control group (p = 0.375 and 0.965, respectively). In contrast, the mean UCa/Cr excretion and frequency of high UCa/Cr ratios in the urinary stone and follow-up VUR groups were significantly higher than those in the corrected VUR group (p < 0.001, < 0.001, 0.003, and 0.029, respectively). The mean UCa/Cr excretion and frequency of high UCa/Cr ratios in the follow-up VUR group were similar to those in the urinary stone group (p = 0.323 and 0.425, respectively). In the follow-up VUR group, although reflux laterality had no effect on the UCa/Cr ratios (p = 0.180 and 0.108, respectively), the mean and frequency of high UCa/Cr ratios were higher in high-grade reflux cases (p < 0.001 and p = 0.042, respectively).

Conclusion Both the mean UCa/Cr ratio and the rate of hypercalciuria in the corrected reflux group were significantly lower than the corresponding values in the follow-up VUR and urinary stone groups. Further, the follow-up VUR patients had similar urinary calcium excretion levels as the stone patients. VUR treatment is associated with a decrease in urinary calcium excretion to the normal population level. A positive correlation between reflux degree and calcium excretion was observed.



Publication History

Received: 03 June 2020

Accepted: 23 October 2020

Publication Date:
22 November 2020 (online)

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