Planta Med 2004; 70(7): 632-636
DOI: 10.1055/s-2004-827186
Original Paper
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Evaluation of the Harmonizing Effect of Ylang-Ylang Oil on Humans after Inhalation

T. Hongratanaworakit1 , G. Buchbauer2
  • 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Srinakharinwirot University, Nakorn-nayok, Thailand
  • 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Center of Pharmacy, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
This work was supported by grants from Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand
Further Information

Publication History

Received: December 1, 2003

Accepted: January 25, 2004

Publication Date:
15 July 2004 (online)


Scientific evaluations of the effects of fragrances on humans are rather scarce. The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of ylang-ylang oil (Cananga odorata, Annonaceae) on human physiological parameters and self-evaluation. Twenty-four healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Fragrances were administered by inhalation. Physiological parameters recorded were skin temperature, pulse rate, breathing rate and blood pressure. Self-evaluation was assessed in terms of alertness, attentiveness, calmness, mood, relaxation and vigor. Additionally, fragrances were rated in terms of pleasantness, intensity and effect. The present investigation showed that ylang-ylang oil may be characterized by the concept of ”harmonization” rather than relaxation/sedation. Compared to an odorless placebo, ylang-ylang oil caused significant decreases in blood pressure and pulse rate as well as significant increases of subjective attentiveness and alertness. Correlational analyses revealed that the observed effects are mainly due to a subjective odor experience.


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Dr. Tapanee Hongratanaworakit

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Srinakharinwirot University

Nakorn-nayok 26120


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