Subscribe to RSS
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York
Phenolic Constituents in Dried Flowers of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) and their in vitro Antioxidative Capacity
Received: February 9, 2007
Revised: April 4, 2007
Accepted: April 13, 2007
22 May 2007 (online)
The dried flowers from Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) (Asphodelaceae) were analysed by means of HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS, verifying chlorogenic, caffeic, 5-p-coumaroylquinic, caffeoylshikimic, 5-feruloylquinic, 5-p-cis-coumaroylquinic, p-coumaric and ferulic acid as well as luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, kaempferol, isoorientin, isovitexin and their 7-O-glucosides, saponarin and lutonarin. On searching for anthranoids in the flower extract, aloe-emodin as well as the glycosylchromone aloeresin B could be identified. Aloin A and B, the laxative principle of the drug Curaçao-Aloes, are not accumulated in the dried flowers. The polyphenol content of three different batches was 0.73 - 1.01 % (± 0.05 %) and the flavonoid content 0.24 - 0.34 % (± 0.01 %). The hydrophilic antioxidative capacity amounted to 85.7 - 94.9 (± 0.5) μmol TEAC/g dried Aloe vera flower and was directly correlated with the polyphenol and flavonoid contents.
- Supporting Information for this article is available online at
- Supporting Information .
- 1 European Pharmacopoeia, 5th edition. Strasbourg; Council of Europe 2005.
- 2 Reynolds T. Aloes: the genus Aloe . London; CRC Press 2004.
- 3 Beil A, Rauwald H W. Direct cytochemical characterization of phenolic-storing idioblasts in Aloe species combining micromanipulation and HPLC. Naturwissenschaften. 1993; 80 315-7.
- 4 Sigler A, Rauwald H W. First proof of anthrone aglycones and diastereomeric anthrone-C-glycosyls in flowers and bracts of Aloe species. Biochem Syst Ecol. 1994; 22 287-90.
- 5 Sigler A, Rauwald H W. Aloe plants accumulate anthrone-type anthranoids in inflorescence and leaves, and tetrahydroanthracenes in roots. Z Naturforsch. 1994; 49c 286-92.
- 6 Hou D Y, Hui R H, Wu S, Guo H, Liu X Y, Chen B Y. Determination of aloin by HPLC and the antioxidation effect of flowers of aloes. J Zhejiang University. 2004; 31 438-41.
- 7 Clifford M N, Johnston K L, Knight S, Kuhnert N. Hierarchical scheme for LC-MSn identification of chlorogenic acids. J Agric Food Chem. 2003; 5 2900-11.
- 8 Fang N, Yu S, Prior R L. LC/MS/MS Characterization of phenolic constituents in dried plums. J Agric Food Chem. 2002; 50 3579-85.
- 9 Kahnt G. Trans-cis-equilibrium of hydroxycinnamic acids during irradiation of aqueous solutions at different pH. Phytochemistry. 1967; 6 755-8.
- 10 Jürgenliemk G, Nahrstedt A. Phenolic compounds from Hypericum perforatum . Planta Med. 2002; 68 88-91.
- 11 Whitaker B D, Stommel J R. Distribution of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in fruit of commercial eggplant (Solanum melonga L.) cultivars. J Agric Food Chem. 2003; 51 3448-54.
- 12 Becchi M, Fraisse D. Fast atom bombardment and fast atom bombardment collision-activated dissociation/mass-analysed ion kinetic energy analysis of C-glycosidic flavonoids. Biomed Environ Mass Spectrom. 1989; 18 122-30.
- 13 Grayer R J, Kite G C, Abou-Zaid M, Archer L J. The application of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the chemotaxonomic study of flavonoids: characterisation of flavonoids from Ocimum gratissimum var. gratissimum . Phytochem Anal. 2000; 11 257-67.
- 14 Bokstaller S, Schmidt P C. A comparative study on the content of passion flower flavonoids and sesquiterpenes from valerian root extracts in pharmaceutical prepartions by HPLC. Pharmazie. 1997; 52 552-7.
- 15 Schmidt P C, González Ortega G. Passionsblumenkraut: Bestimmung des Gesamtflavonoidgehaltes von Passiflorae herba. Dtsch Apoth Ztg. 1993; 133 4457-66.
16 Chopin J, Bouillant M L. C-Glycosylflavonoids. In: Harborne JB, Mabry TJ, Mabry H editors
The Flavonoids.London; Chapmann and Hall 1975: 632-91.
- 17 Markham K R, Mitchell K A. The mis-identification of the major antioxidant flavonoids in young barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves. Z Naturforsch. 2003; 58c 53-6.
- 18 Okamura N, Asai M, Hine N, Yagi A. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic compounds in Aloe species. J Chromatogr A. 1996; 746 225-31.
- 19 Park M K, Park J H, Kim N Y, Shin Y G, Choi Y S, Lee J G. et al . Analysis of 13 phenolic compounds in Aloe species by high performance liquid chromatography. Phytochem Anal. 1998; 9 186-91.
- 20 Rauwald H W, Sigler A. Simultaneous determination of 18 polyketides typical of Aloe by high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection. Phytochem Anal. 1994; 5 266-70.
- 21 Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999; 26 1231-7.
Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Stahl-Biskup
Institute of Pharmacy
Division of Pharmaceutical Biology and Microbiology
University of Hamburg