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© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York
Neuroprotective Effects of a Standardized Extract of Diospyros kaki Leaves on MCAO Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rats and Cultured Neurons Injured by Glutamate or Hypoxia
Received: July 30, 2005
Revised: October 11, 2006
Accepted: October 30, 2006
22 June 2007 (online)
Naoxinqing (NXQ, a standardized extract of Diospyros kaki leaves) is a patented and approved drug of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) used for the treatment of apoplexy syndrome for years in China, but its underlying mechanism remains to be further elucidated. The present study investigates the effects of NXQ against focal ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats and against glutamate-induced cell injury of hippocampal neurons as well as against hypoxia injury of cortical neurons. Oral administrations of NXQ at 20, 40, 80 mg/kg/day for 7 days (3 days before MCAO and 4 days after MCAO) significantly reduced the lesion of the insulted brain hemisphere and improved the neurological behavior of the rats. In primary rat hippocampal neuron cultures, treatment with NXQ at 5 - 20 μg mL concentration protects the neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxic death in a dose-dependent manner. In primary rat cerebral cortical neuron cultures, pretreatment with 5 - 100 μg/mL NXQ also attenuates hypoxia-reoxygen induced neuron death and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that NXQ significantly protects the rats from MCAO ischemic injury in vivo and the hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced excitotoxic injury as well as cortical neurons from hypoxia injury in vitro by synergistic mechanisms involving its antioxidative effects.
CNS:central nervous system
MCAO:middle cerebral artery occlusion
I/R:ischemia and reperfusion
Naoxinqing - Diospyros kaki L. - CNS pharmacology - neuroprotection - middle cerebral artery occlusion - ischemia and reperfusion - glutamate - hypoxia
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- Supporting Information .
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Prof. Anlong Xu
Department of Biochemistry
School of Life Sciences
Sun Yat-sen University
135 W Xingang Road
People's Republic of R China