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Parental Presence during Induction of Anesthesia Improves Compliance of the Child and Reduces Emergence Delirium
Introduction Preoperative stress and anxiety in pediatric patients are associated with poor compliance during induction of anesthesia and a higher incidence of postoperative maladaptive behaviors. The aim of our study was to determine which preoperative preparation strategy improves compliance of the child during induction and decreases the incidence and intensity of emergence delirium (ED) in children undergoing ambulatory pediatric surgery.
Materials and Methods This prospective observational study included 638 pediatric American Society of Anesthesiologists I–II patients who underwent ambulatory pediatric surgery, grouped into four preoperative preparation groups: NADA (not premedicated), MDZ (premedicated with midazolam), PPIA (parental presence during induction of anesthesia), and PPIA + MDZ. The results were subsequently analyzed in four age subgroups: Group 1 (0–12 months), Group 2 (13–60 months), Group 3 (61–96 months), and Group 4 (> 96 months). Preoperative anxiety (modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale [m-YPAS]), compliance of the child during induction (Induction Compliance Checklist [ICC]), and ED (Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale) were analyzed in each group.
Results Eighty-one percent of patients in the PPIA + MDZ preparation group presented a perfect compliance during the induction of anesthesia (ICC = 0), less preoperative anxiety (mean score m-YPAS = 26), less probability of ED (odds ratio: 10, 5 [3–37.5]; p < 0.05), and less ED intensity compared with the NADA group (1.2 vs. 5.8; p = 0.001).
Conclusion PPIA associated with midazolam premedication improves compliance during induction and decreases the incidence and intensity of ED.
Received: 17 February 2021
Accepted: 10 June 2021
09 July 2021 (online)
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